Vol. 9, No. 1
November 2004


Built Spaces.
The Cultural Shaping of Architectural and Urban Spaces





___Ivan Nevzgodin
Delft / Novosibirsk


Post-Soviet Phenomena: Transformation of Urban Spaces and Functions of Karl Marx Square in Novosibirsk



    The Karl Marx Square in Novosibirsk is one of the most curious examples of late-soviet / post-soviet urbanism in Russia[1]. Its development has some similarity with what is happening at the moment in Berlin, where the former 'GDR part' of the city is under large-scale redevelopment. It can as well evoke some nostalgic feelings. But of course Karl Marx Square has Siberian, even specific Novosibirian features. All sort of things are extreme, bizarre here: it is ‘the biggest public square in Russia’, soon ‘the biggest Russian complex for culture and entertainment behind the Urals’ will be opened here and at the same time we find muddy, primitive stalls in the centre of this square. Before I finished this article, on the 12th of August 2004, the authorities closed the market here, although it was the second most important in Novosibirsk.

The professional perception of this urban space – and the town planners’ and architects’ activities to change it – often contradict the public perception of the process. To illustrate this contradiction, I use the diary of an anonymous young man who was born and grew up in a city block nearby Karl Marx Square. His subjective perceptions during twenty years can illustrate the spatial experience of the public.

Prehistory – the centre of a Socialist town
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Figure 1
Novosibirsk 1930
  In 1929 the authorities chose in the steppe between two villages, Perovo and Bol’shoe Krivoshchekovo, at the river Ob’ opposite Novosibirsk, a construction place for the Sibcombine-factory of agricultural machines. As was usual at that time, the factory was designed as ‘the largest in the World’. It would provide place for 12,000 workers. For this factory a new town should be constructed for 120,000-150,000 inhabitants. In 1930 the architects Dmitrii E. Babenkov, Alexander V. Vlasov and Nikolai Kh. Poliakov designed a layout for this ‘Socialist City’ – Left-Bank Novosibirsk. (Figure 1) The main idea of the project was the socio-economical organisation of a new town of the socialist type. In the layout of the town, with its radial and gridiron streets, we recognise the influence of the town-planning ideas of Le Corbusier as layed down in Une Ville Contemporaine (1922) and La Ville Radieuse (1930).
The plan had a very well elaborated functional zoning system. The authors aimed at the creation of simultaneous cultural and services networks. The town should consist of structural elements – housing combinates for 500-1,000 persons. These combinates would contain several dwelling units with a common public centre. The public buildings would be situated according to the principle of decentralisation: the town would have three district centres, each with a public garden, clubs, a post office, a department store and an administration building plus a ‘Business’-Centre for the whole town. This ‘Business’-Centre was designed at the crossroads of the main streets. It should contain all buildings for administration and supply (shops) at town level. All buildings were designed as freestanding, surrounded by green spaces.
A square for mass meetings and demonstrations was proposed at the east of the ‘Business’ Centre. This square would be directly connected with a park and have a Palace of Culture, a museum and a hotel.
The plan of Left-Bank Novosibirsk was not entirely realised. Nevertheless some of the main streets were laid out and at the end of the 1930’s a group of four levels brick row houses, a hospital, a club and two kindergartens were built in the North-Western part near the factory.
Before World War II no permanent building designed in the plan of Left-Bank Novosibirsk was built at the place of the ‘Business’ Centre. This place later became known as Karl Marx Square. The space and its surroundings remained undeveloped till the middle of the 1950s.

Beautiful plans
In 1950 the architect A.
Ya. Gladshtein from Leningrad made a new urban design for the left bank of the Ob’ opposite Novosibirsk. The urban development would start from the square near the bridgehead and stretch out to the main town square (Karl Marx Square). In his pompous design Gladshtein proposed at the entrance to the Karl Marx Prospect a Stalinistic Moscow type tower flanked by two arches and two smaller towers. The central tower would visually fix the beginning of a Karl Marx Prospect. The tallest tower of the left bank at Karl Marx Square would be the culmination of this neo-classical composition. This design remained on paper completely. But the idea of a panorama of the Left Bank City and of the visual fixation of the square by high-rise buildings would remain in the following urban proposals.

Built and un-built spaces
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Figure 2
Novosibgorproject 1953
  In 1955 a bridge over the Ob’, which would connect the right and left bank of Novosibirsk, was completed. Till then there was only a railroad bridge connection between the two banks. In the same year the first building of the future Karl Marx Prospect, a hostel for the Novosibirsk Electro-Technical Institute, was built[2]. Karl Marx Prospect lay on the axis of the bridge and became the one and half kilometre long access from Karl Marx Square to the bridge. Another event in the same year, the beginning of the construction of the big Television Translation Centre to the west of Karl Marx Square, gave an extra impulse to the development of this area. The Leningrad-based design institute Lengorproject made several urban proposals for the town blocks along Karl Marx Prospect. Local architects of the Institute Novosibgorproject used the bases of these schemes for the further design of this territory. The city blocks consisted of housing placed on the perimeter, and several public services and housing blocks inside. All housing consisted in standardised four- or five-storied buildings. The town blocks had a certain symmetry in their layout. The architects A. F. Yakusevich, R. M. Okuneva built in 1958 two of such blocks of 16 hectares each, at the east side of Karl Marx Square. (Figure 2)

The construction of the bridge and the buildings along the Karl Marx Prospect made this direction to Karl Marx Square so dominant, that town planners decided not to build the Square for mass meetings and demonstrations as designed in the plan of 1930. The functional program of that square was moved to Karl Marx Square. In this way a Palace of Culture took the central place of the administrative tower of the Gladshtein’ design. A hotel building would serve as a vertical accent.
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Figure 3
The Hotel 'Tourist'
  The construction of the first huge buildings at Karl Marx Square started as late as the 1970s. The Oblast Council for Tourism began in May 1972 the construction of the twenty-two floors high Hotel Tourist for 800 guests at the right corner of the square. It should become the vertical dominant. The ground flour and the first floor extended from the main vertical volume. In this basement should be placed the administration offices, tourist firms, a cinema for 450 visitors and hotel services. The montage of the concrete frame and the prefab panels was completed in July of 1979, but the building is yet to be finished. This makes it one of the ‘monuments of long standing soviet constructions’, dolgostroi. This phenomenon is very typical for third-world countries. (Figure 3)
In 1974 the construction of the huge department store GUM “Russia” had started at the left corner of the square. The first note relating to Karl Marx Square in the boy’s diary is from the year 1979:
My grandparents live at the other side of a field named
Karl Marx Square. This square is really enormous. It is a waste ground crossed by several pathways. It is always interesting to go through this grassy or snow covered endless emptiness, because people walk here with dogs. Some of them have beautiful thoroughbred dogs. My dog is a middle-sized mongrel. The square is so gigantic that when I let my dog run, he very quickly reduces to a point in the sea of space. Also when I cross it, as one of a crowd of people transiting from the bus stations to their home, I always think about fireworks. This is a place where at holidays fireworks take place. It is my favourite show! I want that it will be soon[3]’.

Socialism: waiting for the Underground and for the GUM ‘
It was typical for the command economy to concentrate the financial and material resources in huge complexes and ask consumers to wait till it would be finished. At Karl Marx Square this was presented visually. Here is the next note from the diary:
‘1980. When we crossed a field (Karl Marx Square
- I. N.) my mother showed me construction fences and explained me that there will be a huge department store. She said that the building would be completed when I will go to school, also the underground station would be built here and this place would become the real centre of the district. I want to go to school, I want that time passes quickly and this building, huge as a palace, will be ready[4]!’

Nevertheless, in the atmosphere of a temporal construction site several public objects were completed at the edge of the square:
1981. At the edge of
Karl Marx Square there are several interesting shops. One is a TV sets shop on Blucher Street. It is very long and it is completely of glass. Everywhere there are TV sets. Near by this shop at the corner is a shop of flowers and seeds. The seeds are deficit. And when the new seeds arrive to the shop there will be a queue. My mother often buys seeds here; she wants to buy a dacha. The most exciting shop opened last year. It is the jeweller Crystal at the corner of Titova Street. It is very big, with a marble floor and with long splendorous showcases full with gold and silver. They have one diamond ring, which costs 40.000 roubles (around $ 60.600 – I. N.). My grandfather said that he thinks to buy it. Near the Crystal shop is the Berezka (Birch) shop. It is only for foreigners. I very much would like to look inside[5]’.

The planned economy was not able to realise all it plans. The same boy wrote in September 1982:
I went to school. The whole
Karl Marx Square is an exorbitant construction place. The department store is still not ready[6]’.

The incompleteness was an important feature of the Soviet urban fabric in the provincial towns during the whole second half of the twentieth century. From the diary of 1985:
The unfinished tower of the Hotel dominates the square. It is ominous. The dark holes, instead of windows, made it look like an enormous mouth without teeth. My father said: “It will be never finished”. What a pity! I also want the underground station, but already several years a group of enthusiastic building workers declare from a poster on the construction fence: “We promise to the Fatherland to finish the metro in December’” (“My
i slovo Rodine daiem, chto v dekabre metro sdaem!”). It seems that nobody knows which year they have in mind[7]’.

Last Soviet attempt
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Figure 4

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Figure 5
  In 1985, when the institute Novosibgrazhdanproject started the design of a new plan for the square as ‘a complex of park and public buildings’, Karl Marx Square had several buildings at its perimeter for luxurious consumption, in the middle of it stood the construction of the huge department store “Russia”; the construction of the underground station had begun, the enormous empty central space was used as a playground for dogs and for fireworks during the holidays. A year later the Sibselmash factory (former Sibcombine) started the erection of the Palace of Culture at the centre of the square. This building would finish the perspective of Karl Marx Prospect. In comparison with the hotel building the volume of the palace is low, but it has the most important town planning position, on the axis of Karl Marx Prospect. In the new urban design two principles determined the spatial composition of the square. Architect Vladimir M. Galiamov looked at the square from inside and outside. (Figures 4 and 5) From the ‘outside’ point Galiamov tried to make an impressive silhouette composition for Left Bank Novosibirsk. He elaborated several variants for a solution of the accentuation of the low volumes of the Palace of Culture. In one of the designs a monotonous line of flat façade low housing buildings should provide a background for the elaborated volume of the palace. In another design behind the palace several high-rise buildings would appear and two towers would flank it. These buildings would create a panorama of the left bank and visually fix the place of the square.
From the ‘inside’ point Galiamov offered to make the square free from transport. To assure a segregation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, Galiamov decided that two diagonal roads, dividing the square in three nearly triangular lots, should disappear. The square would become a pedestrian zone for recreation and consumption free from noise, fumes, visual intrusion and danger of traffic.

Capitalism: the building boom
The new capitalist era transformed the square into the alternative city centre of whole Novosibirsk
[8]. The opening of the underground station in 1991 gave an impulse for dynamic development. The square is now an important hub between the terminal of the underground and other public transport. In 1992 the young man wrote in his diary:
I went to study at the University. Last year they finally finished the underground. Every morning I go through a park and cross
Karl Marx Square when I run to the metro. It is strange how people use this space. There are official roads, but everybody takes the unofficial pathways. They are shorter, diagonal, but sometimes dangerous. One pathway crosses a tramline circle. Everybody goes short way across the tramline. The pathways have no asphalt of course; they are very often muddy. The favourable saying of my grandfather for superior quantity is: “As much as mud” (“Mnogo kak griazi”). All is determined by the shortest way to the underground. Some times the state places an obstacle on the pathway, for example an iron fence enclosing a schoolyard. Immediately someone made a hole in the fence. Almost two years long everybody went bending through the hole, till someone enlarged it to the human height[9]’.
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Figure 6
The Hotel 'Tourist'

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Figure 7
Barakholka (Flea market)

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Figure 8
Barakholka (Flea market)
  The two urbanistically most important buildings of Karl Marx Square are still not finished; in front of their construction fences, as in a theatre before the curtain, capitalism started to perform new plays. First of all primitive trade appeared spontaneously. The central authorities lost the usual Soviet command economic means of urban control and regulation, and did not know what to do with the heritage of Socialism here: two huge unfinished buildings. The Sibselmash factory could not adapt itself to the market economy, had financial difficulties and stopped the construction of the palace. The perplexity of the central authorities gave chance for self-regulating spontaneous transformations, determined by the rising capitalism. Several construction firms from China, South Korea and Yugoslavia showed their interest in finishing the hotel, which for twenty years had been left there as an orphan. But in October 1994 the Russian open joint-stock company ‘Tursib’ was established to finish the construction of the hotel. It took around four years to collect the necessary technical information to be sure that the frame of the building still could be used. Some changes were visible at the construction site only from 1998 on. (Figure 6)

In 1995 another ‘orphan’ at Karl Marx Square got his ‘stepfather’; the concern SBS-308 bought the construction of the Palace. The concern very quickly realized the problem of the finishing of the palace – the municipality insisted that the building should keep its cultural and recreational profile. In this year the young man wrote:
It is funny; on my way to the underground I always meet the same people. I recognize the faces and even occupations (this is a teacher running to a school). The construction of the Hotel did not move at all. There is a sleeping land at the construction territory of the
Palace of Culture. Sometimes I see a very slow move of the workers there. But it looks that they also understood the uselessness and hopelessness of their work. Behind the construction fences there is a very huge flea market. You can buy there everything, from clothes and food to house keeping and car details. The traditional Russian bazaar, in the Soviet slang “barakholka”, conquered its place[10]’. (Figure 7)

– the motor of trade

At first the flea market near the construction site of the palace was illegal. But when it grew to a larger scale, the direction of SBS-308 found a genial solution. They convinced the city authorities to rent them the construction territory and allow to organise a temporary market on it. All the taxes from the stalls should be directly invested in the finishing of the construction of the palace. The municipality would be the owner of a part of the palace, built of the tax income. This became a great business. The concern SBS-308 had such a huge profit, that it did not have a stimulus to finish the palace. The Karl Marx Square became the second market in Novosibirsk
[11]. (Figure 8)
The life behind the construction fences and construction hollows flourished. The most primitive way of trade in open-air stalls generated money for a luxurious palace. In 1998, when the municipality signed a new 6-year contract with the concern, the expensive dome for the atrium was brought from Germany.

Urban mixture
Capitalism had a self-regulating effect and easily found the requirements for shopping: convenience, safety, efficiency and good environment. In his diary in 1997 the young student wrote:
The shops occupy the underground passages. The subterranean shops sell luxurious goods. It is a labyrinth of glass and shine! It is very convenient in our climate. In the winter there are female sellers, thickly packed in clothes with red faces from the frost. Traditionally a bazaar would be inconvenient (in the open air in the Siberian climate) and very muddy. It came from a special sort of trade mentality. The clients would buy something in a hurry and leave quickly. When a bazaar is convenient, people walk slowly through it, looking for shelter and thinking a lot before buying something
At the grounds near the underground station they built a very ugly building for food products. It looks as a badly made American fortress. It has a courtyard and several thoroughfares, above them a sort of towers were placed. The façades are absolutely flat, clad with terrible aluminium panels

The square not only mirrors the rapid economic development and differentiation in the Russian society, but also shows an effect of globalisation. In 2001 the young man noted:
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Figure 9
The Siberian KaDeWe

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Figure 10
Karl Marx Square

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Figure 11
New clothes for Soviet buildings
  The square is dominated by trade. All sort of shops, kiosks, cafes etc. are everywhere. It is very convenient that you can buy everything and in every price class you want. The goods came from all around the world. There are several trading worlds on this square, which do not meet each other. You can have several scenarios of using the space of the square. If you want pretentious, luxurious goods you go to the department store “Russia”. It is also a place to make a date for example. (Figure 9)
If you want rational, economic shopping, you first go to the department store “
Russia”, than to the subterranean shops, than – to the flea market. If you are still not satisfied, you have the opportunity to take a tram and in ten minutes find yourself at the main market of Leninskii district[14]’. (Figure 10)

The square in its spatial fragmentation presents plurality of new experiences of space and social actions. This is clear from the two following notes in the diary:
‘2002. A lot of Soviet things are gone. Instead of my favourable TV shop there is a tourist firm. New-York Pizza took the place of the café of my childhood with delicious penny-loafs and pancakes.
(Figure 11)
Karl Marx Square has several faces: the morning face – a rush to public transport, to work; the daily face – a trading fuss; and a night face. The night face is different. You will meet others than the day sellers (black market?) in the underground passages. In contrast with Soviet time the square is illuminated in different colours. Shop windows, advertisements, electronic news-lines, light of restaurants, cafes and terraces attracting ramblers. Capitalism fills the holes; from a window or the back door of the daytime luxurious drugstore you can buy the necessary equipment for the adventure in night’s darkness’.

‘September 2003.‘I have two guests from
Holland – two very nice women from the wealthy society of The Hague. I wanted to show them the first Socialist housing built in 1931-1932 and designed by the group of the well-known German town planner Ernst May. I picked them up at their hotel in the centre and we took the underground to Karl Marx Square. Here I made a terrible mistake – we left the underground from the right pavilion, and we were confronted with enormous ample land – a dump at the edge of the construction territory of the Tourist hotel. It was unexpected for me as well that they had taken away part of the construction fences. But I could not imagine how dramatic the effect would be on my dear friends, who were used to the accurate, comfortable, snug environment of The Hague. Their beautiful faces were destroyed by horror. This ampleness associated in their mind with the results of a bombardment. They thought that I had brought them to the terrible outskirts of the town. To disengage their tension I quickly brought them to the luxurious shop of Yakut diamonds across the road. It helped - they recovered in this quiet little shop with pleasant sellers[15]’.

The City of
Novosibirsk or Arbat of the city?
In 2000 the municipal town-planning department designed an urban plan for the development of the square. From the previous Galiamov design it inherited the idea of a traffic-free town centre. Even pedestrian bridges appeared in the new plan. Karl Marx Square would be a pedestrian square connected by footpaths with the other parts of Left Bank Novosibirsk. In the discussion of deputies someone even called the square ‘Siberian Arbat’. But the main topic of the deputies’ discussion was the distribution of the lots. Most deputies insisted on the preservation of the cultural and recreation character of the square.

The New Centre of the city?
Already at the end of the 1930s there was a plan to move the centre of Novosibirsk from Lenin square. The attempt of the 1960-1980s to replace the city centre to the October district completely failed. The urban and economic potential of Karl Marx Square raised a discussion about a new town centre again in the 2000s. The free construction territories, where new offices and shops may be built according to the latest standards, make the square very attractive for investors. The good accessibility, the absence of construction restrictions by the preservation committee and buildings for recreation and entertainment, which have already started, assure the commercial success. The urban incompleteness of the square stimulated the boiling expectations. Thus in 2003 more than five big enterprises had ambitious construction plans for the total building area of more than 130.000 m
2. The Siberian branch of Sberbank (State Savings bank of Russia) decided to build its filial here. The newspapers wrote about the ‘City on Karl Marx Square’. It should become a meeting place of the town. The commercial efficiency of shops and other business activities would increase by the concentration of all these complexes and buildings. Some analysts say that in three to five years Karl Marx Square will be the centre of Novosibirsk.

Architecture and urban design
The comparison of the new urban proposal for Karl Marx Square with the designs from the Soviet period shows the more intense use of the ground. In the last design of the municipal department for town planning, the authors still follow the Soviet tradition in their attempt to create a unified urban composition – an ensemble. But they also try to reduce the gigantic dimensions of the square, which represents the typical gigantomania of Soviet town planning. It was difficult from the beginning to organize such an enormous open space architecturally. Nowadays it occupies an area of around 25 hectares
[16]. Actually, in the new design buildings on three sides will enclose the Karl Marx Square, so that a new little inside square would be formed. The designers pay more attention to the organization of car parking than in Soviet time and try to reduce the surface car parking.
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Figure 12

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Figure 13
The Palace of Culture

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Figure 14
The Public Trade complex 2003
  The architects designed four identical high buildings along Novaya Street. Such simple repetitiveness, from my point of view, has little chance in the new economic reality. But from the other side, it seems that architects realize themselves very well how insignificant their influence is on the real urban development. In post-Soviet reality the investors and the municipal bureaucrats distribute the lots and make the final decision on urban matters.
It seems that in 2004 the construction of the palace will be finished. In 2003 the concern SBS-308 already invested 10 millions dollars in its construction. Curiously enough the exterior of the complex, designed in late Soviet Brutalism, underwent only small changes.
(Figures 12 and 13) A member of the original architects’ team, Galina N. Nekrasova, chose some new construction materials for the façades and modified the compositions of the window frames. Inside, the palace changed from the Soviet standard design to a complex, meeting high international standards of recreation and entertainment. It has two multifunctional halls (for 1,500 and 200 seats), a cinema, a music hall, restaurants and cafes, casinos, exhibition spaces, a computer centre, a winter garden and a swimming pool. The complex will be ‘the biggest Russian complex for culture and entertainment behind the Urals’.
Also this year the basement of the hotel was finished. It got a Post-Modernist style facing. The old prefab-panels of the main volume of the hotel will be replaced by a modern double-façade. The electric cables, canalisation and water pipes laid in 1986 are removed. Russian, Finnish and German construction firms participate in the completion of the building.
In the latest building designed for Karl Marx Square the Post-Modern architecture gives way to Neo-Modernism and Neo-Functionalism. In one of the designs the long construction fences, so characteristic for the square, inspired the architects. The quality of architecture gradually improves. Nikolai Z. Kazakov, Irina Ju. Smorgovich, A.
V. Ogorodnikov, D. V. Kiriukhin designed near the hotel an elegant public-trade complex in High-Tech architecture. (Figure 14)

The latest note in the diary about Karl Marx Square says:
‘2004. The constructions of the Hotel and the former
Palace of Culture are activated. It is difficult to imagine that thirty years old construction fences will at some time have disappeared. The square has lost its provincial, unfinished, post-soviet character. The architecture is international. It is too much of globalization. It is the same as everywhere. If you ask for a beer in a café they will offer you Heineken[17]’.





I should note here that the name Karl Marx is easier to pronounce for Russians than Karl Liebknecht; nevertheless it was nicknamed by the people as ‘Karla Marla’. Karl Liebknecht Street is simply named ‘Ulitsa Karla’.


The Novosibirsk Electro-Technical Institute was established in Left-Bank Novosibirsk in 1953.


Anonymous. A diary 1979-2004, pp. 4-5.


Ibid., p. 16.


Ibid., pp. 24-25.


Ibid., p. 47.


Ibid., pp. 72-73.


For the pioneering research of the redevelopment of provincial cities in the post-soviet period see: Rudolph, 2001.


Anonymous. A diary 1979-2004, pp. 99-100.


Ibid., p. 131.


This had some consequences – at the evening of 20 of March 1997 the president of the concern SBS-308, Alexander Razinkin, was shot when he left his Mercedes and went to his office.


The Central Market of Novosibirsk occupied a whole city block. The construction of two market pavilions started at the end of the 1960s. They were completed in 1978. The roofed part of the market is less than 30% of the whole market. In spite of the Siberian climate the open-air part is functioning also in winter.


The changes at the square went so quickly, that I cannot find any photograph of this building. It is very common that architects make pictures of beautiful buildings. It has the consequence that some important urban events are not documented. In the beginning of the 2000s it was replaced by the glass facades of the shopping centre “Granite”.


Anonymous. A diary 1979-2004, p. 144.


Ibid., pp. 159.


The already a bit oversized Red Square in Moscow measures only 2.95 hectares. This gigantomania is characteristic for squares built by totalitarian regimes. Here should be mentioned that in Siberia no satisfactory results in the construction of squares of the Soviet period can be found.


Anonymous. A diary 1979-2004, p. 177.



. A diary 1979-2004, Unpublished text in a loose-leaf binder, Novosibirsk, 1980-2004, private archive in Novosibirsk. All quoted fragments were noted by the author of the article in July 2004.
Kolpakova, Marina; Tumanik, Gennadii – Novosibirsk: gorod v 2000 godu (Novosibirsk: the city in the year 2000), Novosibirsk, 1989.
Ogly, Boris I. – Formirovanie tsentrov krupnykh gorodov Sibiri (The formation of the centres in large Siberian cities), Novosibirsk, 1999.

Rudolph, Robert - Stadtzentren russischer Großstädte in der Transformation - St. Petersburg und Jekaterinburg, Leipzig, 2001.


Figure 1. Dmitrii E. Babenkov, Alexander V. Vlasov and Nikolai Kh. Poliakov. The Left-Bank Novosibirsk - Socialist Town, 1930. 1. The ‘Business’ Centre. This place later became Karl Marx Square; 2. The Square for mass meetings and demonstrations; 3-5. the district centres.

ure 2. Novosibgorproject - A. F. Yakusevich, R. M. Okuneva. The buildings along Karl Marx Prospect. 1958.

ure 3. The Hotel ‘Tourist’ – an aged orphan of Socialism. The construction started in May of 1972. Photograph July of 2004.

ure 4. Novosibgrazhdanproject – Vladimir M. Galiamov (architect), V. S. Kirsh (engineer). The urban design for a public park and a building complex at Karl Marx Square, 1985-1986.

ure 5. Novosibgrazhdanproject – Vladimir M. Galiamov (architect), V. S. Kirsh (engineer). The urban design for a public park and a building complex at Karl Marx Square, 1985-1986.

ure 6. The Hotel ‘Tourist’  at Karl Marx Square. The convex part – the so-called Block B was completed in the summer of 2004. Photograph July of 2004.

Figure 7. Barakholka (flea market) at the construction site of the Palace of Culture. Photograph July of 2004.

ure 8. ‘As in a theatre before the curtain, capitalism performs new plays in front of construction fences’ - Barakholka (flea market) at the construction site of the Palace of Culture. At the background the state department store ‘Russia’. Photograph July of 2004.

Figure 9. The Siberian KaDeWe – the state department store ‘Russia’. Photograph July of 2004.

Figure 10. Karl Marx Square. A view from the entrance pavilion to the underground station. At the background the Hotel ‘Tourist’. Photograph July of 2004.

Figure 11. The new clothes for the Soviet buildings built on the edge of Karl Marx Square in 1958 by the architects A. F. Yakusevich and R. M. Okuneva. New York Pizza at the left corner. Photograph July of 2004.

ure 12. Novosibgrazhdanproject – Vladimir V. Borodkin (main architect), Architects:  Viacheslav L. Shatilov, A. S. Mikhailov, L. Levina; Engineers: E. Tolmachev, G. Nekrasova, A. Sviridova. The Palace of Culture of the Production Association ‘Sibselmash’ (Siberian Agricultural Mechanical engineering), 1985-1986.

ure 13. The Palace of Culture as re-designed by the architect Galina N. Nekrasova in the 2000s. Photograph July of 2004.

Figure 14. Nikolai Z. Kazakov, Irina Yu. Smorgovich, A. V. Ogorodnikov, D. V. Kiriukhin. The public-trade complex. 2003.






Vol. 9, No. 1
November 2004