Vol. 4, No. 2,
February 2000

A New Cultural Landscape
Working and Living Environments for the Future

von Kraft


Home – Foreign Parts
The Familiar and Unfamiliar

An attempt is made to bridge between visual arts and landscape. Perception of landscape within landscape is always different from an artificial representation of landscape. Regarding a picture we remain outside the action, not within the landscape. Yet this is no longer true since the Land Art movement. Artists move into the landscape or work with natural material. Today there also exist imaginative worlds, which have been created with computers, that open visions of future landscapes. This leads us to the title of this endeavor and its inherent abstract complexity of security as well as departure for new cultural landscapes that still have to be developed.

Thinking Landscapes


The Urbanized Landscape – the Landscaped City
Towards a New Relationship between City and Nature

The change of the relationship between city and landscape will be sketched, arguing that this change is at the same time leading towards a mutual pervasion as well as a far-reaching functional change of the open spaces, where agriculture is no longer undisputedly dominating, but partially replaced by a variety of leisure amenities. In a city-country-continuum develop hybride provisional results in between "built city" and "natural landscape", with an increasing intensity of pervasion with "technology". There lie new chances for planning and design pointing towards a symbiotic city, yet the necessary visions and ideas are still limited. Some probable reasons for this limitation will be discussed.



Lausitz as Idea of a Landscape

This article explores the question, how new images and ideas for the landscape of Lausitz develop. For the lower Lausitz as a region of great upheaval new landscape concepts are discussed e.g. within the International Building Exhibition ´Fürst Pückler Land´.
Reactions to the perception of the region – as landscape that is mainly shaped by soft coal mining – are e. g. innovative as well as collectively remembered landscape ideas. These are mostly ideas with the human being seemingly in harmony with nature. New potentials for development such as tourism are connected with this change of landscape ideas.
It will be discussed how this new image of a beautiful, romantic landscape appears as an image of wholeness. Yet, if the reflection on such a cultural constitution of an image of landscape is missing, the misleading impression might arise, that not only an image of such a romantic landscape but in fact a real unity of human being with nature could be created.



The Transformation of a Hill.
Making the Earth a Body – The Example of Karlsberg (Wilhelmshöhe) Close to Kassel

The occidental idea of an organic earth was theoretically determined by Platon´s Timaios, with the argument that the existence of the earth as well as the stars is equivalent to the existence form of living creatures. This is the framework that leads to always new interpretations of the macro- microcosmological equivalence of universe, earth and human being. Particularly the image of the earth as magna mater, giving birth to and nurturing all life, yet at the same time in analogy to the human being, growing infirm and decaying, was constantly varied. The gardens were fundamentally part of the representation of old and new body-methaphorical perspectives of "nature". This idea of a body character of the earth was still present at the beginning of the 18th century, when the redesigning of complete Karlsberg (Wilhelmshöhe) close to Kassel was celebrated as a triumph over the dying or decaying earthborn Typhon, mythologically and physically at the same time, because it was a weather beaten volcano. Only at the end of the planning, Hercules´ hill is exceeded by the power of artifical order. Thus it is not only a significant object but a subject, being a walkable statue of a coloss that looks over the giant Typhon as well as the landscape below that subjects it and forms a unified whole.



On the Future of the Aesthetic Landscape

The idea of landscape has proven the power for increasing aesthetic development of space, as further regions have continuously been "discovered". In the beginning one had to actually move to places, walk around deliberately designed ambience or even travel to Italy, in order to experience landscape. Then the discovery was made, that landscape eventually can be found directly in font of one´s house. Yet, at some point these landscapes seemed visually used and materially destroyed.
It appears as logical conclusion that the pattern of ´landscape´ can only be kept alive by further spacial developments. However this ignores the dynamic of the process. What has initially appeared as the contrary of landscape, e.g. the places of capitalistic production, recently seems to have best chances to be discovered with landscape eyes, even to be considered attractive – especially as it has just been overtaken by industrial progress like the Ruhr area.
The tradition of landscape is therefore the development of new items for a landscape look, or in another way, the renewal of ingrained habits of seeing.

Sander W.


Landscapes, World Windows and Membrane

Two parts talk to someone who looks at or experiences a landscape, and to soemone who plans it. In both, the landscape is infered as subject or in particular as membrane. It is the expression of a permeability towards inside and outside, yet the inside enables it to exist. Plinius, the Younger, is a classical and Derossi a modern witness. In Landscape design the Annatura (IV), the power of spontaneous confrontation (I), the ideal (II), and the unconscious or the constant reservoir of growing powers in all creatures (III) form a cut or connection. Thus it becomes important to empower the lectures of projection for the real (metaphysical) meaning of space. Consciousness of perpendicular and polar axes creates a continuous relationship with the possibilities of reading (effective) reasons. Finally, the eye within the dynamis of experience is keeping pace with reality that can no longer be dissolved as mere point de vue (Leibniz) nor as difference of empirical and pure contemplation (Kant).



Man and Nature – Thoughts on the Conception of and Dealing with Landscape

The term ´landscape´ belongs to a general vocabulary, describing a region or a selection of a terrain, which is experienced or understood as unity. Besides, the landscape is also a subject of research and representation within different scientific fields (geography, landscape ecology, geo-ecology) and therefore is scientifically defined as such. The change of landscape, i.e. the whole physical environment, is at the same time shaped by geogenous, biogenous and anthropogenous factors. The human impact in this context serves the realization of the basic functions of being (living, working, providing, dwelling, creating, recreating). On this background landscape is subject to multiple use and fulfills various functions (production, regulation, carrier, location, and information), with conflicts that arise as they are realized. Therefore concepts for sustainable land(scape) use have to be developed and put into action. They should be capable of garanteeing the existence of following generations. Yet this is only possible if the protection of nature, environment and ressources are kept in balance with the use of ressources.



Questions about the Identity of a Landscape and its Population – the Example of the IBE-Region "Fürst Pückler Land"

If for the time span of ten years the landscape of the Lower Lausitz will be subject of planner discussions in the context of the International Buidling Exhibition, the questions arises what actually determines the identity of this landscape and what kind of landscape should be presented in this IBE context. The following article discusses aspects of regional identity as well as an identity of landscape as mirror for cultural processes. The example of IBE "Fürst Pückler Land" will be taken to finally cursory investigate the possible identity creating effects of such a project for this landscape that before had been shaped by soft coal mining and recently demands for a new definition.



Promised Worlds for Living – From the ´Culturalization´ of Nature Space to a Construction of ´Secondary´ Nature

The author discusses the background and the causes of processes of spacial change during the 19th and 20th century in the context of production and refinement of soft coal. It becomes clear that at least since the 19th century, society (primarily relying on regenerative energy) started to increasingly develop a surfacing skin for space, so that life would be freed from the arbitrariness of sun, wind and water and that natural resources could be used "smoothly".
Yet those technological landscapes which developed during this period of change lead to the phenomenon of industrial smoke stacks replacing woods as crowns on the horizons of the scenery and the physiognomy of space became more and more the "outside" of ideologies and autarky.
Regarding the recent discovery of decaying industrial culture as a new sort of landscape, the author finally discusses the question of re-designing those as short-lived leisure time landscapes or reserves for "static pseudo-wilderness".

Making Landscape


Legibility of Landscape –
Social Scientific Thoughts about the Context of Image, Role Model and Planning

Planning should be orientated by role models, so that their intentions can be controlled. Yet where do those role models come from? What task do they fulfill? Therefore the author will ask for such role models, that appearently make the legibility of spacial phenomenons possible, as they offer an approach for an understanding. Such a relation of planned object and role model is only available in an indirect way: via reading and interpreting of spatial phenomenons as specific and planned subjects. This already happens secretly among planners and is not a topic in itself. Instead, the author attempts to discuss the question: What kind of image is actually leading the planner´s role model? The image, however, cannot be rationalized like the role model and fulfills general normative demands like objective correctness. Finally, the author proposes to attach the role model to such images, that the regional population can refer to.



Models and Adaptations – Planning Approaches for Old Industrial Regions

By now exist several examples for developing old industrial regions, e.g. examples, models and tested strategies. The transfer to other situations of course appears to be restricted, because each approach demands for an adaptation of knowledge and procedure for specific and nevertheless always new situations.
This article will focus on one aspect of this planning – the relationship between different concepts of industrial landscapes and their possible re-interpretation. Examples of England, USA and Germany will illustrate some transformations of role models for a new industrial landscape.

Iris Bohnet
Diedrich Bruns
Detlev Ipsen


Landscape Dynamics in Germany

Modern lifestyles, demographic restructuring, and the expansion of the European Community are changing the European countryside. At stake are cultural landscapes, their richness in wildlife, historical interest, scenic beauty, and the recreational opportunities they provide. Visible phenomena of change are symptoms of a growing socio-economic and ecological disparity between different regions. Agreements on AGENDA 2000 European policy provide a new platform for regional and agricultural development. The paper explores which landscape dynamics are in store. Employing examples from rural Germany, the paper presents corridors of possible futures for unique, and at the same time, dynamic places. Modern strategies of landscape and urban planning are discussed which aim at closer co-operation between a multitude of stakeholders, policy makers, planners, and other agents of change. Methods and tools are needed to build consensus among ever increasing numbers of people representing potentially wide ranges of values.



Making Landscape a Subject of Discussion

This article will present a strategic procedure for dealing with historical places in Brandenburg and its monuments - City-subjects should be expressed. City-subjects are tools for informal planning and are especially important as different ideas have to be put together into one structure within a ´new landscape´.
This method, shortly described in this context, could be applied to the conception of IBE "Fürst Pückler Land" and contribute to associate individual projects and present them accordingly. The question for a future identity of a whole region depends not only on the planers´ ideas and the feasibility of individual projects, but also on an identification of the population with this IBE "Fürst Pückler Land".



International Building Exhibition (IBE) "Fürst Pückler Land" – The First IBE from Below

This contribution will present the conception of the IBE "Fürst Pückler Land". Starting with a reference to former exhibitions, the unique approch of IBE "Fürst Pückler Land" can be seen in the fact, that it is developed from below, i. e. from within the region and not by bringing the outside into this particular region. Individual projects that are already planned and will soon be put into action are discussed in detail.

Points of View


Landscape Development: About Doers and Planners

At least since barock the development of cultural landscapes is marked by an increasingly uncoordinated side by side of doers and planners. A number of new activists joined the first ´doers´: the farmers. House owners, allotment gardeners and specialized engineers followed suit. The everyday routine in building industries is hardly guided by a ´landscape as a whole´ any more. A lack of striking aesthetic concepts lead to ex post facto interference/balance instruments that only approach the symptoms in an insufficient way and rather complicate the communication between planners and doers.
Therefore a design framework is demanded, which enables social appropriation processes and - besides all the variety – creates homogeneity.



About ´Holes´, ´Cheese´ and the First Attempt to Explore the Ins and Outs of the Contents of IBE "Fürst Pückler Land"

The participating author comes forth with a statement, refering to the variety of positions, that are taken by initiators, architects, critics and investors and discussed in this conference. He concludes with discussing a possible debate about an infrastructure development for the region.



SUEDRAUM LEIPZIG or: The Birth of Landscape out of the Spirit of Environmental Destruction

Only in the consequence of industrialisation and environmental destruction south of Leipzig developed something, that might in a public awareness be considered a landscape. Around 1900, this region appeared as boring in terms of landscape. In the mid 20s it was for the first time perceived as an interesting site for tourists. Briquette factories and mining were considered something worth sightseeing. During the second part of the 20th century the public increasingly understood mining and coal processing as overexploitation of nature. The image of the region changed to the negative. At the same time began the recultivation of this landscape and in this context, for the first time, this region became topographically arranged and received a landscape structure: High dumps became forested hills, mining areas became valleys, lakes and huge forest areas or meadows. However, the economic perspectives of the region are connected to the perception of the landscape resources and how they are designed and accentuated for the public.

Schröteler-von Brand


Statement: Experiences with the Region of Rhine Soft Coal Mining

The author who participated the round-table-discussion, contributes in this text to the topic resettlement in the Rhine soft coal area. For several years she worked on projects, that dealt with this problem of resettlement and worked out some ideas for an improvement of this procedure. She discussed her approach, which mainly focuses on possibilities for participation of the local people.


(Groß Glienicke)

Round Table "Making Landscape"

The author was an active guest of the round-table-discussion, that dealt with the topic "Making Landscape". In his contribution he points at some problems and tries to clarify from his particular perspective.

Epilogue, Outlook


Landscape Layers

The author was asked by the editors of "Cloud-Couckooo-Land" to observe the conference as a whole and, as a conclusion, give his final impressions and specific perspectives. He tries to go beyond a conclusion of the conference and sees the subject of the conference in a broader context in order to achieve a more global perspective towards the future of the region.

The essays are open to discussion for 6 months. Remarks, comments or criticism by readers can be added to each essay. The authors then may rewrite their essays during these 6 months of interaction with readers. After this period the articles will be frozen but still available in the net.

The editorial staff keeps all rights, including translation and photomechanical reproduction. Selections may be reprinted with reference:
Wolkenkuckucksheim, Cloud-Cuckoo-Land, Vozdushnyj Zamok >/theoriederarchitektur/Wolke< if the editorial staff is informed.

Issue 1/96:Architecture in the Realm between Art and Everyday life
Issue 1/97: Modernity of Architecture. A Critical Recognition
Issue 2/97: Architecture - Language
Issue 1/98: Architectonics and Aesthetics of Artificial Worlds
Issue 2/98: Architecture and Home. A discussion of Heideggers essay `building, dwelling, thinking` (1951)
Issue 1/99: Design Creativity and Materialization